Can The Words You Read Change Your Behavior?

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Tom Scott

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Shared December 2, 2019

"Priming" is the idea that the words you read can change the way you act. And yes, there are papers that show an effect: but we also need to talk about the Replication Crisis. MORE LANGUAGE FILES: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list...

Written with Gretchen McCulloch and Molly Ruhl. Gretchen can be found at http://lingthusiasm.com/

And Gretchen's new book, BECAUSE INTERNET, is available:
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REFERENCES:

Kay, A. C., Laurin, K., Fitzsimons, G. M., Landau, M. J. (2014). A functional basis for structure-seeking: Exposure to structure promotes willingness to engage in motivated action. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 486–491. doi:10.1037/a0034462

Bargh JA, Chartrand TL. Studying the Mind in the Middle: A Practical Guide to Priming and Automaticity Research. In: Reis H, Judd C, editors. Handbook of Research Methods in Social Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2000.

Klein, R. A., Vianello, M., Hasselman, F., Adams, B. G., Adams, R. B., Alper, S., … Nosek, B. A. (2018). Many Labs 2: Investigating Variation in Replicability Across Samples and Settings. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1(4), 443–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245918810225

Zaval, L., Keenan, E., Johnson, E., & Weber, E. (2014). How warm days increase belief in global warming. Nature Climate Change. 4. 10.1038/nclimate2093.

Hoedemaker, R., & Gordon, P. (2014). It Takes Time to Prime: Semantic Priming in the Ocular Lexical Decision Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(6), 2179-2197.

Heyman, T., Van Rensbergen, B., Storms, G., Hutchison, K., & De Deyne, S. (2015). The Influence of Working Memory Load on Semantic Priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(3), 911-920.

McNeill, D. (1985). So you think gestures are nonverbal? Psychological Review, 92(3), 350-371.

Balota, D. A., & Lorch, R. F. (1986). Depth of automatic spreading activation: Mediated priming effects in pronunciation but not in lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 12, 336 –345. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.12.3.336

de Groot, A. M. (1984). Primed lexical decision: Combined effects of the
proportion of related prime–target pairs and the stimulus– onset asynchrony of prime and target. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 36, 253–280. doi: 10.1080/14640748408402158

Forster, K. (1981). Priming and the effects of sentence and lexical contexts on naming time: Evidence for autonomous lexical processing. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 33, 465– 495. doi:10.1080/14640748108400804

Hutchison, K. A., Balota, D. A., Cortese, M. J., & Watson, J. M. (2008). Predicting semantic priming at the item level. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006), 61, 1036 –1066. doi:10.1080/17470210701438111

Keefe, D. E., & Neely, J. H. (1990). Semantic priming in the pronunciation task: The role of prospective prime-generated expectancies. Memory & Cognition, 18, 289 –298. doi:10.3758/BF03213882

McNamara, T. P. (2005). Semantic priming: Perspectives from memory and word recognition. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

McNamara, T. P., & Altarriba, J. (1988). Depth of spreading activation revisited: Semantic mediated priming occurs in lexical decisions. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 545–559. doi:10.1016/0749-596X(88)90025-3

Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited-capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226 –254. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.106.3.226

Shelton, J. R., & Martin, R. C. (1992). How semantic is automatic semantic priming? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 1191–1210. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.18.6.1191

Klein, R. A., Vianello, M., Hasselman, F., Adams, B. G., Adams, R. B., Alper, S., … Nosek, B. A. (2018). Many Labs 2: Investigating Variation in Replicability Across Samples and Settings. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1(4), 443–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245918810225

Rosenthal R (1979). "File drawer problem and tolerance for null results". Psychol Bull. 86 (3): 638–41.

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